21 Oct

Menopause and Premenstrual Syndrome

Menopause and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are two important menses related issue that many women face from their teen days till their greying age. Both of these are unavoidable yet becomes tough to manage together with daily chores especially when women are always looked upon to take care of the house, kids and career at the same time.

PMS happens days prior to menstruation and can last few days after. Symptoms range from physical to mental and emotional. These include lack of appetite, bloating, weight gain, abdominal cramps, lower back pain, irritability, anxiety, fatigue and mood swings. Most of these symptoms have been associated with lifestyle habits and stress such as fast food, poor sleep quality, lack of exercise and so on. Although these symptoms are present in about 90% of women, roughly 10% have very severe pain and difficulties that affect their functions.

Menopause on the other hand is a natural part of reproductive ageing marked by a period of 12 months without menses. The age of onset, duration, and symptom severity depends on several factors, including ethnicity, habits, and lifestyle factors. Vasomotor symptoms are the most commonly experienced such as hot flashes, migraines, night sweats and palpitations. Besides these, there could be physical alterations around the genital region like dryness and pain, followed by mood swings, depression and irritability that are more psychogenic in nature.

PMS is a monthly cycle that requires period changes to our lifestyle and eating habits, but due to some conditions that cannot be controlled like stress, it is important to nourish yourself properly, get balanced physical activity and avoid toxic environments. Menopause on the other hand could lead to more severe complications like cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis which is the most common older women health issue in Singapore too. These complications arise from a decline in certain hormone levels in the body and certainly reduces quality of life which leads to many seeking health treatments and remedies.

It is thus very important that women need to take care of their health. Healthy diet, healthy physique and healthy mind are three important areas that should never be neglected. Whether old or young, health is a priority and should not be compensated. It is important to create awareness and educate women on these conditions. Furthermore, it is advised to seek professional help from healthcare professionals and nutritionist to understand their body and take proper measures to improve their symptoms. Remember that no symptom is tiny enough to sweep under the carpet, protect yourself at every level!




Bansal R, Aggarwal N. Menopausal Hot Flashes: A Concise Review. J Midlife Health. 2019 Jan-Mar;10(1):6-13. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Gudipally PR, Sharma GK. Premenstrual Syndrome. [Updated 2022 Jul 18]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. 

Peacock K, Ketvertis KM. Menopause. [Updated 2022 Feb 2]. In: StatPearls [Internet].

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